Tag Archives: Pelvic Floor Dysfunction

Is Running Bad for a Woman’s Pelvic Floor?

As some of you may know, I recently completed my second half-marathon. To make it even better, I completed it with my amazing and wonderful husband Andrew:

4 miles in to our first half marathon!

4 miles in, and feeling great!

This was my second half marathon in 1 year, and my third *big* athletic event—the other two being the Disney Princess Half Marathon and the Ramblin’ Rose Sprint Triathlon. I started out 2013 with the goal of being healthier and developing strategies for life-long fitness, and I really am proud to say that as I approach the end of 2014, I am well on my way to better fitness.

Disney princess half

Disney Princess Half Marathon with my awesome sister, Tara and wonderful colleague, Jenna

After completing my last half-marathon, I received the following question from a previous patient of mine,

“Ok, I have to ask, after seeing your race pictures,

isn’t running bad for a woman’s internal organs??”

My initial thought was to respond quickly with a, “Not always, but sometimes…” type of response. But then it got me thinking, and inspired me to really delve into the issue with a little more science to back my thought—although honestly, the gist will stay the same.

So… Is running bad for the pelvic floor? Let’s take a look.

When someone initially looks at the issue, there may be the temptation to respond with a resounding, “YES!” We initially think of running and think of “pounding the pavement,” identifying large increases in intra-abdominal pressure and assuming that this pressure must make a woman more likely to experience urinary incontinence and/or pelvic organ prolapse.

But, what does the research really show?

1. Urinary incontinence during exercise is common and unfortunate.

  • Jacome 2011 identified that in a group of 106 female athletes, 41% experienced urinary incontinence. However, they also found that UI in those athletes seemed to correlate with low body mass index.

2. High impact athletes often may require more pelvic floor strength than non-athletes.

  • Borin 2013 found that female volleyball and basketball players had decreased perineal pressure when activating their pelvic floor muscles compared to nonathletes which they concluded placed these women at an increased risk for pelvic floor disorders and especially UI.

3. Over time, physically active people are not more likely to have urinary incontinence or pelvic organ prolapse that non-active individuals.

  • Bo 2010 found that former elite athletes did not have an increased risk for UI later in life compared to non-athletes (although she did find that women who experienced UI when they were younger were more likely to experience UI later on in life).
  • In another study, Bo (2007) found that elite athletes were no more likely to experience pelvic girdle pain, low back pain or pelvic floor problems during pregnancy or in the postpartum period compared to non-athletes.
  • An additional study by Braekken et. al. 2009 also did not find a link between physical activity level and pelvic organ prolapse. However, they did find that Body mass index, socioeconomic status, heavy occupational work, anal sphincter lacerations and PFM function were independently associated with POP.

Is your head spinning yet?? Let’s make some sense of this research…

First, it does seem like UI is a common problem in athletes—the cross-fit video that had all of my colleagues up in arms identified this problem really well—and honestly, runners are no exception to this. Every week, I work with women who experience urinary leakage when they run or may have even stopped running due to leakage, and I can assure you this causes a huge impact to these women’s lives. I also can assure you that there are many women out there dealing with leakage during running or other exercises who suffer in silence, too embarrassed to get help or somehow under the impression that leakage with exercise is normal.

With that being said, I am not ready to throw away running or really any other form of exercise all together (other than sit-ups…let’s never do those again). Running has amazing benefits—weight control, cardiovascular improvements, psychological improvements/stress reduction—and these should not be cast aside due to a fear that running could cause a pelvic floor problem.

As a pelvic floor physical therapist working in a predominantly orthopedic setting, I see many men and women enter our clinics with aches and pains—and injuries—that began while starting or progressing a running program. Often times, our amazing PTs identify running gait abnormalities, areas of weakness, or biomechanical abnormalities which can be contributing to hip/knee/foot/etc. pain with running. Improving those movement patterns and improving those individual’s dynamic stability seems to make a huge difference in allowing the client to participate in running again without difficulty.

To be honest with you, I see pelvic floor problems in runners the exact same way. When a woman comes into my office complaining of urinary leakage during running, I look to identify running gait abnormalities, areas of weakness or biomechanical abnormalities which are impacting her body’s ability to manage intra-abdominal pressure during running. I also make sure I am managing other things—identifying pelvic organ prolapse when it may be occurring and helping the woman with utilizing a supportive device (tampon, pessary—with collaboration with her physician, or supportive garment), managing co-existing bowel dysfunction or sexual dysfunction, and making sure the patient has seen her physician recently to ensure she is not having hormonal difficulties or medication side effects which could worsen her problems.

We know that intra-abdominal pressure is higher when running. A poster presentation at the International Continence Society in 2012 identified that running does in fact increase intra-abdominal pressure compared to walking—but not as much as jumping, coughing or straining (Valsalva). And not as much as sit-ups…which I hate.

Kruger et. al. ICS Poster Presentation, "Intra-abdominal pressure increase in women during exercise: A preliminary study." 2012

Kruger et. al. ICS Poster Presentation, “Intra-abdominal pressure increase in women during exercise: A preliminary study.” 2012

As you know by now if you follow my blog posts, I do not believe that the pelvic floor is the only structure involved in controlling intra-abdominal pressure increases in the body. (This is why I get so annoyed with all of the studies trying to look at the effectiveness of pelvic floor muscle exercises used in isolation in treating pelvic floor dysfunction). The most current anatomical and biomechanical evidence supports the idea that the pelvic floor muscles work in coordination with the diaphragm, abdominals, low back muscles as well as even the posterior hip muscles to create central stability and modulate pressures within the pelvis. In order for a runner to not leak urine or not contribute to prolapse or pelvic floor dysfunction when she runs, she needs the following(well really, more than this…but let’s start here):

  • Properly timing, well-functioning, flexible pelvic floor muscle group.
  • Properly timing diaphragm—that is used appropriately as she runs so she is not participating in breath holding during her exercise
  • Strong and adequately timed abdominals and low back muscles to assist in stabilizing her spine/pelvis and assist in controlling IAP.
  • Flexible and appropriately firing gluteal muscles to support her pelvis during each step as she runs
  • Appropriate shoes to support her foot structure and transfer the loads through her legs
  • A great sports bra to help her use good posturing while running

Now, is there a time when a woman shouldn’t run?

Yes, I do actually think there are times when running does more harm than good and it may be advantageous for a woman to take some time off from running to restore the proper functioning of structures listed above.

  • If a woman has pelvic organ prolapse, for example, she may need to take some time off from running and participate in other exercises emphasizing functional stability with less of an increase in IAP prior to resuming an exercise program. Some women can return to running in the meantime using a supportive device like a pessary or tampon to help support her organs; however, this may not ultimately mitigate the harm if a person is not stabilizing properly as she runs.
  • I also recommending taking a break from running if a woman is leaking significantly during running or experiencing pain with running. I generally believe that once these structures are appropriately restored to function, women can return to running with less difficulty.
  • The other time I will often recommend waiting is when a woman is further along in her pregnancy or early post-partum. At this time, the increased weight on the pelvis as well as the loss of stability occurring due to hormonal changes places a woman at a higher risk for pelvic floor dysfunction. This, of course, varies based on the individual, but in many cases it may be helpful for these women to choose alternative exercises until after they deliver their children.
  • And lastly, I do recommend a woman holds off on running immediately after gynecological surgery (no-brainer here folks). The research does not indicate that said woman should never return to running—but again, I do think she should allow her body to heal and build up the appropriate strength and coordination needed to support her organs and her pelvis when running.

This post got a little longer than I originally anticipated… so to sum it up… is running bad for your female organs? Not always… but sometimes.

Many of my colleagues have some fantastic blog posts regarding exercise and pelvic floor dysfunction. Check out a few of them below:

Vlog by Julie Wiebe providing an alternative to running:

https://www.juliewiebept.com/video/integrative-programming-for-female-runners-with-incontinence/

Safe exercise for those with pelvic pain:

http://www.pelvicpainrehab.com/pelvic-floor-physical-therapy/2058/pelvic-pain-and-exercise-general-fitness-tips/

Tracy Sher, “Pelvic Guru” on Leaking during exercise:

http://pelvicguru.com/2013/06/22/dear-crossfit-and-crossfit-gynecologist-im-appalled-theres-help-for-peeing-during-workouts/

Seth Oberst’s 4-post series on the Diaphragm:

http://www.sethoberst.com/blog/category/breathing

What do you think? Let me know in the comments below!

Written by: Jessica Reale, PT, DPT, WCS

References:

Bo K, Backe-Hansen KL. Do elite athletes experience low back, pelvic girdle and pelvic floor complaints during and after pregnancy? Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2007 Oct;17(5):480-7. Epub 2006 Dec 20.

Bo K, Sundgot-Borgen J. Are former female elite athletes more likely to experience urinary incontinence later in life that non-athletes?

Borin L, Nunes F, Guirro, E. Assessment of pelvic floor muscle pressure in female athletes. PM R. 2013 Mar;5(3):189-93. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010 Feb;20(1):100-4

Jácome C, Oliveira D, Marques A, Sá-Couto P. Prevalence and impact of urinary incontinence among female athletes. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011 Jul;114(1):60-3.

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The Importance of Holistic and Integrated Care for Survivors of Sexual Assault Experiencing Pelvic Pain

By Jessica Powley, PT, DPT, WCS

 It is well-established in clinical research that survivors of sexual abuse are more likely to experience future sexual dysfunction than those who have not experienced abuse. The reasons behind this are thought to be multifactorial and may be related to post-traumatic stress as well as physical symptoms as a result of this stress and anxiety. As a pelvic physical therapist, I often work with strong women (and men!) who have survived sexual trauma and abuse, either as children or adults. Most commonly, these people will have been referred to me for some version of pelvic pain—vulvodynia, interstitial cystitis, vaginismus, or general pelvic pain. One of our theories behind this pain is that the trauma experienced by the muscles of the pelvis leads to a “tensing” and “protective” response. Over time, this natural response creates shortened, irritated pelvic floor muscles which can cause severe pain.

While treating the pelvic floor muscles, I often recommend that my patients work with a psychological professional concurrently in order to address the psychological components of their pain. Now, does that mean I believe their pain is “in their heads?” Not in the least bit. With many of these people, their pain is very real and very physical—meaning, we know that their muscles are causing pain. However, our mind can be a very strong driving force which can either promote recovery or hinder it. The role of the brain in pain has been well-established. Lorimer Moseley and David Butler are two neuroscientists who have done extensive research in this area (two of my favorite researchers! Yes, I am a nerd.) If you are interested in reading more about this, please check out their website (http://www.noigroup.com/en/Home) and I personally recommend the books, Explain Pain and Painful Yarns.  Clinically, I often find that recovery with patients is much improved when both the physical and psychological aspects are addressed concurrently.

But what about a person who undergoes psychological counseling and treatment but does not receive the physical treatment? New research published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine suggests that symptoms will continue to persist. In this research, women who had survived sexual assault as adolescents as well as received psychological therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder were compared with age-matched controls in regards to sexual activity and symptoms of sexual dysfunction. Although sexual activity level was equal between groups, survivors of sexual abuse were 2.7 times more likely to experience pelvic floor dysfunction than their peers, as well as 2.4 times more likely to experience sexual dysfunction such as difficulty with lubrication and pain. These results led researchers to conclude that survivors of sexual abuse should truly be cared for by a multidisciplinary team to address both physical and psychological effects of abuse.

Our bodies work in synergy. If people are to achieve optimal function of any part of their bodies, problems must be addressed in a holistic manner. Throughout the world of healthcare, there has been a strong push for multidisciplinary care, and this should be the case as well for survivors of sexual abuse. Teams of physicians, nurses, physical therapists, psychologists, and nutritionists can work together to help a person move toward recovery. Just as the body cannot be treated without the mind, so the mind should not be treated without the body.

Reference: Postma RBicanic Ivan der Vaart HLaan E. Pelvic Floor Muscle Problems Mediate Sexual Problems in Young Adult Rape Victims. J Sex Med. 2013 May 16

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